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The machines are evolved in an involved stack of processes. At the top-level an evolution consists of one or more generations. Each generation starts with either the base machine (first generation), or the best machine from the last generation.

Each generation consists of a number of optimisations, where each optimisation applies a mutation to the starting machine for the generation, then runs a number of annealings against that mutated machine to optimise it.

The mutations modify the tree of components in a machine by inserting new components into it.

The annealings focus on choosing better values for a set of real numbers which control the evaluations of the machine. The techniques of choosing better values are (currently) excitation and relaxation.

Excitation tries to randomly vary the current values, by an amplitude which decreases as the optimisation proceeds.

Relaxation seeks to slightly modify the current values by changes which will not make anything worse.